6 Basic Financial Ratios and What They Reveal

financial ratios list

The net profit margin tells you how much money a company makes for every $1 it has in revenue. A company makes 14 cents in profit for every dollar of revenue if its net profit margin is 0.14. Dividing a company’s debt by this equity—and doing the same for others —can tell you how highly leveraged it is, compared to its peers. The P/E is the amount of money the market is willing to pay for every $1 in earnings a company generates. You have to decide whether that amount is too high, a bargain, or somewhere in between. Some of the types of ratio analysis include Liquidity Ratios, Solvency Ratios, Profitability Ratios, Efficiency Ratios, and Coverage Ratios.

Thus, the liquidity of a firm is measured by ratios such as Current Ratio and Quick Ratio. These help a firm maintain the required level of short-term solvency. Therefore, the transaction will be recorded as revenue on the income statement and an account receivable on the balance sheet. Imagine the coffee shop you run sold $100K of coffee bags, of which $50K in gross credit sales. Of the $50K in gross credit sales, $10K of coffee bags was returned.

Management Efficiency Ratios

The firm with more cash among its current assets would be able to pay off its debts more quickly than the other. The quick ratio is another way of helping you pinpoint a company’s financial strength. It’s also known as the “acid test.” As the name suggests, it’s a more stringent measure of its ability to meet its obligations. It subtracts inventory from current assets before dividing by current liabilities. The point is that a company may need a good deal of time to liquidate its assets before the money can be used to cover what it owes. Whether you’re investing your own money or interested in keeping shareholders happy, you’ll need to know the return on equity ratio.

Operating margin is the ratio of operating profit and net sales of a company. Determining individual financial ratios per period and following the adjustment of their values over the long run is done to recognize patterns that might be created in an organization. If a business can earn a higher rate of What is Legal Accounting Software For Lawyers return on capital than the interest expense it incurs borrowing that capital, it is profitable for the business to borrow money. That doesn’t always mean it is wise, especially if there is the risk of an asset/liability mismatch, but it does mean it can increase earnings by driving up return on equity.

Accounting methods and principles

The DuPont model, or DuPont analysis, lets you to break down return on equity to determine what’s driving ROE. It can also give you vital information about a company’s capital structure. The interest coverage ratio is vital for firms that carry a lot of debt. It lets you know how much money is there to cover the interest expense a company incurs on the money it owes each year.

They tell you how well the company uses its resources, such as assets, to produce sales. A few of these ratios that you might want to apply in your research include inventory turnover, receivables turnover, payables turnover, fixed asset turnover, and total asset turnover. Also known as leverage ratios, solvency ratios directly measure a company’s total debt against its assets, equity, and earnings. Debt-to-assets and debt-to-equity are two ratios often used for a quick check of a company’s debt levels. They review how debt stacks up against the categories of assets and equity on the balance sheet.

Example: Net Profit Margin

Operating cash flow alludes to how much money an organization creates from the income it generates, barring costs related to long-term ventures on capital things or interest in securities. These ratios are significant because when there is an improvement in the efficiency ratios, the business can produce more income and profits. A profitability ratio can also be compared to a comparative company’s ratio to decide how profitable the business is compared with its rivals. Significant solvency ratios are- debt to capital ratio, debt ratio, interest conversion ratio, and equity multiplier. Solvency ratios are predominantly utilized by state-run administrations, banks, employees, and institutional financial backers.

Still, it may not be easy to calculate them at times due to variations in their definition and methodology. Ratios, such as activity ratios, are more important to internal users, while ratios, such as market ratios, are more important to investors and staggered shareholders. Other ratios, such as solvency and profitability, are equally important to internal and external users.

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